What Is Meant By Depression?

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss
of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects
how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and
physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and
sometimes you may feel as if life worth living.
Although depression may occur only once during your life, people typically have
multiple episodes. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day,
nearly every day and may include:
Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness.
Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters.
Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex,
hobbies or sports.
Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much.
Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort.
Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food and
weight gain.
Anxiety, agitation or restlessness.

Depression symptoms in children and teens
Common signs and symptoms of depression in children and teenagers are similar
to those of adults, but there can be some differences.

  • In younger children, symptoms of depression may include sadness,
    irritability, clinginess, worry, aches and pains, refusing to go to school,
    or being underweight.
    In teens, symptoms may include sadness, irritability, feeling negative
    and worthless, anger, poor performance or poor attendance at school,
    feeling misunderstood and extremely sensitive, using recreational
    drugs or alcohol, eating or sleeping too much, self-harm, loss of
    interest in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction.
  • Depression symptoms in older adults
    Depression is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken
    lightly. Unfortunately, depression often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older
    adults, and they may feel reluctant to seek help. Symptoms of depression may be
    different or less obvious in older adults, such as:
    Memory difficulties or personality changes
    Physical aches or pain
    Fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems or loss of interest in sex —
    not caused by a medical condition or medication
    Often wanting to stay at home, rather than going out to socialize or
    doing new things
    Suicidal thinking or feelings, especially in older men

Psychotherapy may help a person manage their symptoms of depression.
Depression is treatable, and managing symptoms usually involves three

Support: This can range from discussing practical solutions and possible
causes to educating family members.
Psychotherapy: Also known as talking therapy, some options include one-
to-one counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
Drug treatment: A doctor may prescribe antidepressants.

Antidepressants can help treat moderate-to-severe depression.
Several classes of antidepressants are available:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
Tricyclic antidepressants.
Atypical antidepressants.
Selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
Each class acts on a different neurotransmitter or combination of
A person should only take these medications as their doctor prescribes. Some
drugs can take a while to have an impact. By stopping the drug, a person may not experience the benefits that it could offer.
Some people stop taking medication after symptoms improve, but this can lead to a relapse.                                                                                                              Raise any concerns about antidepressants with a doctor, including any intention to stop taking the medication.

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